Seabird species have responded to changing Arctic environmental conditions over the last four decades. Declines in the Black-legged Kittiwake are tied to deteriorating zooplankton productivity, while the Red-legged Kittiwakes, also declining, are more sensitive to warming ocean surface temperatures.

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Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, “house”; -λογία, “study of”) is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment.

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